Biomedical Sciences

Dr Sokcheon Pak

BSc in Nutrition, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea 1986.
Ph.D. in Physiology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA 1992

Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Sciences

Sokcheon Pak is a Senior Lecturer and Program Leader of the Bachelor of Health Science (Complementary Medicine) at the School of Biomedical Sciences of Charles Sturt University, Australia where he has been since 2007. He is currently an Adjunct Professor at the Wonkwang Health Science University. He received a B.S. from Konkuk University, Korea in 1986, and an M.S. from the Utah State University in Logan, Utah. He received his Ph.D. in Physiology from the Clemson University, South Carolina in 1992. From 2002 to 2006 he worked at the New Zealand College of Oriental Medicine as the Dean.


As per the table below, I have taught at CSU since 2007.



Discipline of students

Roles over different periods


Human Bioscience 1

1st year of nursing and paramedic

Teacher and marker


Human Bioscience 2

1st year of nursing and paramedic

Teacher and marker


Pathophysiology and Pharmacology 1

2nd year of nursing and paramedic

Subject co-ordinator, teacher and marker


Pathophysiology and Pharmacology 2

2nd year of nursing and paramedic

Subject convenor, teacher and marker


Human Reproductive Biology

restricted elective subject of Bachelor of Health Science (Comp Med)

Subject co-ordinator, teacher and marker


Evidence Based Complementary Medicine

core subject of Bachelor of Health Science (Comp Med)

Subject co-ordinator, teacher and marker

Current Research

Interests in research

I am interested in how evidence based practice (EBP) can be incorporated into the Complementary Medicine. The significant impact of my work lies in the introduction of EBP in Complementary Medicine. EBP as a movement in the healthcare sector started since the 1970s. The rise of EBP in the field of conventional medicine over the last few decades also coincided with the increasing popularity of Complementary Medicine in most western nations. The increasing use of Complementary Medicine has prompted many EBP advocates to call for the scrutiny of Complementary Medicine under the same evidence-based approach as conventional medicine. An approach based on EBP to clinical practice that places emphasis on the use of best available research evidence for decision-making is often viewed by general public as cost-effective and universally appropriate solutions to disease management. Many Complementary Medicine practitioners support this view and are eager to capitalise on prevailing the spirit of inquiry via EBP.

Current research projects
  1. Evidence-based review of BioBran/MGN-3 Arabinoxylan compound as a complementary therapy for conventional cancer treatment
  2. Therapeutic effects of bee venom and its major component melittin on atopic dermatitis in vivo and in vitro
  3. Anti-atopic effects of purified bee venom in keratinocytes via suppressed expressions of PAR-2, ICAM-1 and IL-6
  4. Transcendental Meditation for lowering blood pressure: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses



  • Ooi SL, Pak SC. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) for LUTS/BPH: current evidence and its clinical implications in naturopathic medicine. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. In Press.
  • Park KD, Pak SC, Park KK. The pathogenetic effect of natural and bacterial toxins on atopic dermatitis. Toxins. 2017;9:3.
  • Acharya S, Stark TD, Oh ST, Jeon S, Pak SC, Kim M, Hur J, Matsutomo T, Hofmann T, Hill RA, Balemba OB. (2R,3S,2''R,3''R)-Manniflavanone protects proliferating skeletal muscle cells against oxidative stress and stimulates myotube formation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;65:3636-3646.
  • Han SM, Kim SG, Pak SC. Emulsion-based intradermal delivery of melittin in rats. Molecules. 2017;22:836.
  • Spurway J, Logan P, Pak SC, Nielsen S. Reference ranges for the intra-amniotic umbilical cord vein diameter, peak velocity and blood flow in a regional NSW population. Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. In Press.


  • Ooi SL, Rae J, Pak SC. Implementation of evidence-based practice: A naturopath perspective. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;22:24-28.
  • Choi CH, Pak SC, Jang CH. Effect of local anaesthesia on facial nerve blood flow and muscle action potential. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2016;82:43-46.
  • Ohh MH, Kim S, Pak SC, Chee KM. Effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin on histamine induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chicks. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2016;29:672-678.
  • Szeto YT, Wong KS, Han A, Pak SC, Kalle W. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2016;5:331-334.
  • McLean L, Micalos PS, McClean R, Pak SC. Evidence based practice within the complementary medicine context. Tang. 2016;6:e15.
  • Ohh MH, Kim SJ, Han JK, Pak SC, Chee KM. Effects of herbal medicine on human uterine tumor-bearing nude mice. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2016;5:422-426.
  • Spurway J, Logan P, Pak SC, Nielsen S. A comparison of a regional NSW obstetrics population to district, state and national statistics. Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2016;19:118-122.
  • Jang CH, Cho YB, Lee JS, Kim GH, Jung WK, Pak SC. The effect of propofol infusion with topical epinephrine on cochlear blood flow and hearing: An experimental study. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2016;91:23-26.
  • Pak SC. An introduction to the Toxins special issue on 'bee and wasp venoms: biological characteristics and therapeutic application'. Toxins. 2016;8:315.
  • Han SM, Pak SC, Nicholls YM, Macfarlane N. Evaluation of anti-acne property of purified bee venom serum in humans. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 2016;15:324-329.


  • Jeon S, Park JE, Lee J, Liu QF, Jeong HJ, Pak SC, Yi S, Kim MH, Kim CW, Park JK, Kim GW, Koo BS. Illite improves memory impairment and reduces Aβ level in the Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease through Akt/CREB and GSK-3β phosphorylation in the brain. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;160:69-77.
  • Han SM, Kim JM, Pak SC. Anti-melanogenic properties of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom in α-MSH-stimulated B16F1 cells. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2015;26:451-462.
  • Pak SC, Micalos PS, Maria SJ, Lord B. Nonpharmacological interventions for pain management in paramedicine and the emergency setting: a review of the literature. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;2015:873039.
  • Kim JY, Lee WR, Kim KH, An HJ, Chang YC, Han SM, Park YY, Pak SC, Park KK. Effects of bee venom against Propionibacterium acnes‑induced inflammation in human keratinocytes and monocytes. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2015;35:1651-1656.
  • An HJ, Kim KH, Lee WR, Kim JY, Lee SJ, Pak SC, Han SM, Park KK. Anti-fibrotic effect of natural toxin bee venom on animal model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Toxins. 2015;7:1917-1928.
  • McMullen D, McClean R, Pak SC. A critique: the good and bad of a review. Tang. 2015;5:e16.
  • Kim KH, Sung HJ, Lee WR, An HJ, Kim JY, Pak SC, Han SM, Park KK. Effects of melittin treatment in cholangitis and biliary fibrosis in a model of xenobiotic-induced cholestasis in mice. Toxins. 2015;7:3372-3387.
  • Han SM, Hong IP, Woo SO, Chun SN, Park KK, Nichollos YM, SC Pak. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2015:10;1587-1592.
  • Choi MS, Choi BS, Kim SH, Pak SC, Jang CH, Chin YW, Kim YM, Kim DI, Jeon S, Koo BS. Essential oils from the medicinal herbs upregulate dopamine transporter in rat pheochromocytoma cells. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2015;18:1112-1120.
  • Lee WR, Pak SC, Park KK. The protective effect of bee venom on fibrosis causing inflammatory diseases. Toxins. 2015;7:4758-4772.
  • Szeto YT, Sin YS, Pak SC, Kalle W. American ginseng tea protects cellular DNA within 2 h from consumption: results of a pilot study in healthy human volunteers. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2015;66:815-818.
  • Han SM, Kim JM, Hong IP, Woo SO, Kim SG, Jang HR, Park KK, Pak SC. Whitening effect of watersoluble royal jelly from South Korea. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources. 2015;35:707-713.
  • Lee SJ, Kim KH, Pak SC, Kang YN, Yoon GS, Park KK. Notch signaling affects biliary fibrosis via transcriptional regulation of RBP-jκ in an animal model of chronic liver disease. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 2015;8:12688-12697.


  • Nam SY, Kim MH, Seo Y, Choi Y, Jang JB, Kang IC, Kim MJ, Pak SC, Kim HM, Jeong HJ. The (2'S,7'S)-O-(2-methylbutanoyl)-columbianetin as a novel allergic rhinitis-control agent. Life Sciences. 2014;98:103-112.
  • Lee WR, Kim KH, An HJ, Kim JY, Lee SJ, Han SM, Pak SC, Park KK. Apamin inhibits hepatic fibrosis through suppression of transforming growth factor β1-induced hepatocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2014;450:195-201.
  • Szeto YT, Tse RSC, Benzie IFF, Kalle W, Pak SC. An in vitro study of Sanchi (Panax pseudoginseng) for its DNA protective effect. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2014;25:332-340.
  • Szeto YT, Tsang HM, Kalle W, Pak SC. In vitro study of DNA protective effect of DuZhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) using single cell gel electrophoresis. Natural Products: An Indian Journal. 2014;10:229-236.
  • Han SM, Kim JM, Park KK, Chang YC, Pak SC. Neuroprotective effects of melittin on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;14:286.
  • Jeon S, Lee CH, Liu QF, Kim GW, Koo BS, Pak SC. Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after treatment of mice with herbal mixture containing Euphoria longana, Houttuynia cordata and Dioscorea japonica. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;22:77. DOI:10.1186/s40199-014-0077-2


  • Kim KH, Lee WR, An HJ, Kim JY, Chung H, Han SM, Lee ML, Lee KG, Pak SC, Park KK. Bee venom ameliorates compound 48/80-induced atopic dermatitis-related symptoms. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 2013;6:2896-2903.
  • Han SM, Lee KG, Pak SC. Effects of cosmetics containing purified honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on acne vulgaris. Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2013;11:320-326.
  • Han SM, Lee KG, Park KK, Pak SC. Antimicrobial activity of honey bee venom against select infectious fish pathogens. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 2013;75:445-448.
  • Szeto YT, Cheng NF, Pak SC, Kalle W. Genoprotective effect of the Chinese herbal decoction Xiao Jian Zhong Tang. Natural Product Communications. 2013;8:389-392.
  • Szeto YT, Lee KY, Kalle W, Pak SC. Protective effect of grape seed extracts on human lymphocytes: a preliminary study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2013;38:275-279.
  • Szeto YT, To TL, Pak SC,Kalle W. A study of DNA protective effect of orange juice supplementation. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2013;38:533-536.
  • Szeto YT, Lau PC, Kalle W, Pak SC. Direct human DNA protection by Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2013;51:851-855.
  • Hur J, Pak SC, Koo BS, Jeon S. Borneol alleviates oxidative stress via upregulation of Nrf2 and Bcl-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2013;51:30-35.
  • Han SM, Lee KG, Park KK, Pak SC. Skin sensitization study of bee venom (Apis mellifera L.) in guinea pigs and rats. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology. 2013;32:27-30.
  • Jang CH, Cho YB, Choi CH, Um JY, Wang PC, Pak SC. The effect of topically administered latanoprost on the cochlear blood flow and hearing. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2013;77:981-985.
  • Szeto YT, Wong KS, Kalle W, Pak SC. Antioxidative properties of traditional herbal medicines and the application of comet assay on antioxidative study. Tang. 2013;3:e22.

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