Academic Integrity Officers

Wouter Kalle

MSc Univerity of Utrecht 1988 PhD University of Leiden 1993

Lecturer in Biomedical Science / Faculty Academic Integrity Officer
Wagga Wagga
Building 288 Room 242

Wouter Kalle graduated in 1988 as Drs. in Biology from the State University of Utrecht in the Netherlands.

In 1989, he started working as a PhD student at the Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. The title of his PhD thesis is 'Immunochemical Analysis of UV-induced repair events in specific DNA sequences of mammalian cells'. He finished his PhD studies in 1993 and started working as a post doc at the Department of Cytochemistry and Cytometry at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands.

During this period he worked on Atomic Force Microscopy, In situ Hybridization and Immuno-cytochemistry. He took up his present position as lecturer in Molecular Biology in the School of Biomedical Sciences in 1997. His research interests are focused on evolutionary mechanisms in behaviour.

He successfully supervised a number of Honours- and PhD students which has resulted in journal articles in international peer reviewed journals.

Since 2007 he is Program Leader for the Bachelor of Medical Science.

Current subjects taught
BMS240 Human Molecular Genetics BMS241 Molecular Cell Biology
BMS352 Molecular Pathology BMS237 Integrated Clinical Placement I
BMS351 Integrated Clinical placement II

Most of Wouter's scientific life (and publications) deal with DNA, studying it with either molecular or microscopic techniques. The way DNA can be damaged and repaired and the link with cancer induction have been and will be lifelong passions.

As a hobby he has always been interested in the study of evolution. Current research on epigenetics and epigenomics has clearly shown that DNA modification (structural or chemical) can have a profound effect on future generations without actually changing the sequence of DNA. This has shifted his interest in evolution somewhat towards the evolution of human behaviour (see his membership of the European human behaviour and evolution association EHBEA).

This led to the start of a very interesting and exciting development at CSU when they started the Multi-faculty research group 'the genetics of poverty' last year. This group will research the relation between biology, sociology, psychology and social justice. Epigenetic research has already shown that the (neo) liberal dogma 'anyone can do anything as long as opportunities are equal' actually disregards fundamental biological principles and can therefore not be correct. They are trying to follow this in 2013 with some preliminary publications in the area of environmental and genetic influences on social justice and social work.

Research interests:
  • DNA Structure and Repair
  • DNA repair in specific genes
  • DNA damage
  • DNA damage prevention
  • Microscopy
  • Cancer
  • Evolution
  • Evolution of Behaviour
  • Epigenetics

Regular reviewer for:

  • Micron
  • Research in Cell Biology
  • International Journal of Genetics and Genomics
  • European Journal of Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Natural therapies


Research in Cell Biology (

Chair of Multi-Faculty CSU research group 'the genetics of poverty'

PhD Thesis

  • W.H.J. Kalle (1993). Immunochemical analysis of UV-induced repair events in specific DNA sequences of mammalian cells. Thesis, University of Leiden, the Netherlands, 1993.

International peer-reviewed journals

  • Yim Tong Szeto, Kam Shing Wong, Wouter Kalle, Sok Cheon Pak. (2013) Therapeutic properties of ginseng and the application of comet assay on antioxidative study TANG (Humanitas Traditional Medicine) accepted for Publication
  • Yim Tong Szeto, Rick Sui Cheung Tse, Iris F. F. Benzie, Wouter Kalle and Sok Cheon Pak (2013) An In Vitro Study of Sanchi (Panax pseudoginseng) for its DNA Protective Effect Food and Agricultural Immunology accepted for publication
  • Yim-Tong Szeto, Ngok-Fung Cheng, Sok-Cheon Pak, Wouter Kalle (2013) Genoprotective effect of the Chinese herbal decoction xiao jian zhong tang.  Natural product communications 8(3) pp 389-392.
  • Yim Tong Szeto, Po Chun Lau, Wouter Kalle, Sok Cheon Pak (2013) Direct human DNA protection by Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract. Pharmaceutical Biology 4 pp 851-855
  • Yim Tong Szeto, Tai Lun To, Sok Cheon Pak, Wouter Kalle 2013) A study of DNA protective effect of orange juice supplementation. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 38(5) pp 533-536.
  • Yim Tong Szeto, Kit Yee Lee, Wouter Kalle and  Sok Cheon Pak (2013) Protective effect of grape seed extracts on human lymphocytes: a preliminary study Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 38(3) pp 275-279
  • Phillip Bwititi, Uba Nwose, Sharon Nielsen, Henk Ruven, Wouter Kalle, Ross Richards and Eugene Butkowski (2012) Serum uric acid and albumin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate: oxidative stress considerations Australian Journal of Medical Science 33 no 3 pp 82-87
  • Wouter Kalle and P. Strappe (2012) Atomic Force Microscopy on Chromosomes, Chromatin and DNA: a review Micron 43 pp 1224–1231
  • Yim Tong Szeto, Shirley Chin Yee Wong, Julia Mai Wing Mong, Iris F.F. Benzie, Wouter Kalle Sok Cheong Pak (2011)  In vitro anti-oxidation activity and genoprotective effect of selected Chines medicinal herbs. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 39 pp 827-838
  • Jason C. Steel, Heather M.A. Cavanagh, Mark A. Burton, Mones S. Abu-Asab, Maria Tsokos, John C. Morris and Wouter H.J. Kalle (2007)  Increased tumor localization and reduced immune response to adenoviral vector formulated with the liposome DDAB/DOPE.  European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 30 pp 398-405
  • Thordarson P, Atkin R, Kalle WJH, Warr GG, Braet F (2006) Developments in using scanning probe microscopy to study molecules on surfaces - from thin films and single-molecule conductivity to drug-living cell interactions. Aust J Chem 59 pp 359-375.
  • Jason C. Steel, Heather M.A. Cavanagh, Mark A. Burton, Daniel J. Dingwall and Wouter H.J. Kalle (2005). Modification of liposomal concentration in liposome/adenoviral complexes allows significant protection of adenoviral vectors from neutralising antibody, in vitro Journal of Virological Methods, 126 pp 31-36
  • JC Steel, HMA Cavanagh, MA Burton, WHJ Kalle (2005) Microsphere Delivery of Adenoviral-Liposome Complexes Reduces Adenoviral Immunogenicity and Allows Successful Re-Administration of the Virus without Loss of Gene Expression Efficiency Molecular Therapy  S11 p
  • Jason C. Steel, Wouter H. Kalle, Daniel Dingwall, Heather Cavanagh, Mark A. Burton (2004). Pre-treatment with a non-therapeutic dose of cisplatin increases solid tumour response to liposomal-p53 gene therapy.  Cancer Therapy 2 pp 239-244
  • Jason C. Steel, Heather M. A. Cavanagh , Mark A. Burton , Daniel Dingwall and Wouter H. J. Kalle (2004). In-vitro evaluation of ion-exchange microspheres for the sustained release of liposomal–adenoviral conjugates. Journal of Controlled Release 95 pp 601-611
  • MY Kwan, W Kalle, GTC Lau, JKC Chan (2004)  Is gliomatosis peritonei derived from the associated ovarian teratoma?  Human Pathology, 35 pp 685-688
  • Jason C. Steel, Heather M.A. Cavanagh, Mark A. Burton and Wouter H.J. Kalle (2004). Microsphere–liposome complexes protect adenoviral vectors from neutralising antibody without losses in transfection efficiency, in-vitro.  Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 56 pp. 1371-1378
  • Melanie Cochrane, Wouter Kalle, Paul Roffey & Helen Moriarty  (2002). The detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic plaques of Australian subjects. Pathology 34 pp 270-274
  • Crispin R. Dass, Todd L. Walker, Wouter H.J. Kalle and Mark Burton (2000)  A microsphere-lipoplex (microplex) vector for targeted gene therapy of cancer. II. N Vivo biodistribution study in a solid tumor model.  Drug Delivery, 7, pp 15-20
  • Crispin R. Dass, Todd L. Walker, Wouter H.J. Kalle and Mark Burton (1999)  A microsphere-lipoplex (microplex) vector for targeted gene therapy of cancer. I. Construction and in vitro evaluation  Drug Delivery, 6, pp 259-270
  • Ho KY, Kalle WH, Lo TH, Lam WY, Tang CM (1999)  Reduced expression of APC and DCC gene protein in breast cancer.  Histopathology 35, pp 249-256
  • Anneke van Hoffen, Wouter H.J. Kalle, Astrid de Jong-Versteeg, Alan R. Lehmann, Albert A. van Zeeland and Leon H.F. Mullenders (1999)  Cells from XP-D and XP-D-CS patients exhibit equally inefficient repair of UV-induced damage in transcribed genes but different capacity to recover UV-inhibited transcription.  Nucleic Acids Research, 27, 2898-2904
  • B. Weyn, W. Kalle, S. Kumar-Singh, E. van Marck, H. Tanke and W. Jacob (1998)  Atomic force microscopy: influence of air drying and fixation on the morphology and viscoelasticity of cultured cells.  J. Microscopy, 189, 172-180
  • M.F Van Oosterwijk, R. Filon, W.H.J. Kalle, L.H.F. Mullenders and A.A. Van Zeeland. (1996)  The sensitivity of human fibroblasts to n-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene is determined by the extent of transcription-coupled repair, and/or their capability to counteract RNA synthesis inhibition.  Nucleic Acids Research.  24, 4653-4659
  • F. Braet, R. de Zanger, W.H.J. Kalle, A.K. Raap, H.J. Tanke, and E. Wisse. (1996)  Comparative scanning, transmission and atomic force microscopy of the microtubular cytoskeleton in fenestrated liver endothelial cells.  Scanning Microscopy, 10, 225-236
  • M.H.P. Moers, W.H.J. Kalle, A.G.T. Ruiter, J.C.A.G. Wiegant, A.K. Raap, J. Greve, B.G. de Grooth and N.F. van Hulst . (1996)  Fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes observed by Near-field microscopy.  J. Microscopy, 182, 40-45
  • F.C.P. Braet, W.H.J. Kalle, R.B. de Zanger, B.G. de Grooth, A.K. Raap, H.J. Tanke and E. Wisse. (1996). Comparative Atomic Force and scanning electron microscopy; an investigation on cultured sinusoidal rat liver endothelial cells.  J. Microscopy 181, 10-17
  • W.H.J. Kalle, M.V.E. Macville, M. van de Corput, B.G. de Grooth, H.J. Tanke and A.K. Raap. (1996). Imaging of RNA in situ hybridization with the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).  J. Microscopy, 182, 192-199
  • M.H.P. Moers, A.G.T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N.F. van Hulst, W.H.J. Kalle, J.C.A.G. Wiegant and A.K. Raap (1995)  Biological applications of Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy.  Proceedings SPIE 2535, 94-99
  • L.H.F. Mullenders, A-M Hazekamp-van Dokkum, W.H.J. Kalle, H. Vrieling, M.Z. Zdzienicka and  A.A. van Zeeland. (1993)  UV-induced photolesions, their repair and mutations.  Mutation Research 299, 271-276.
  • J. Wiegant, W. Kalle, L. Mullenders, S. Brookes, J.M.N. Hoovers, J.G. Dauwerse, G.J.B. van Ommen and A.K. Raap. (1992)  High-resolution in situ hybridization using DNA halo preparations.  Human Molecular Genetics 1, 587-591
  • W.H.J. Kalle, A-M Hazekamp-van Dokkum, P.H.M. Lohman, A.T. Natarajan, A.A. van Zeeland and L.H.F. Mullenders. (1993)  The use of streptavidin-coated beads and biotinylated antibodies to investigate induction and repair of DNA damage: Analysis of repair patches in specific sequences of UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. Analytical Biochemistry 208, 228-236.

Book chapters:

  • W.H.J. Kalle, Philip Bwititi  and Todd Walker (2009)  Fluorescence in Clinical Diagnosis. In: Ewa M. Goldys (ed), Fluorescence applications in biotechnology and life sciences, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • W.H.J. Kalle, F. Braet, A.K. Raap, E. Wisse and H. Tanke. (1997)  Imaging of the membrane surface of sinusoidal rat liver endothelial cells by atomic force microscopy)  In: E. Wisse, D.L. Knook And C. Balabaud (eds)., Cells of the hepatic sinusoid 6, Kupfer cell foundation, Leiden, 94-96.
  • Wisse E, Braet F, Kalle W, de Grooth B, Raap A, Tanke H. (1995)  Atomic force microscopic investigation of endothelial fenestrae. In: Bailey GW, Ellisman MH, Hennigar RA, Zaluzec NJ, eds. Proc. Microscopy and Microanalysis. New York: Jones and Begell Publishing, 1995:890-891

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